更新日 2018.04.26 | 26 April 2018

展示中 前庭彫刻Forecourt

オーギュスト・ロダン[パリ, 1840年 - ムードン, 1917年]

地獄の門

制作年1880-90年頃/1917年(原型)、1930-33年(鋳造)
材質・技法・形状ブロンズ
寸法(cm)540 x 390 x 100
所蔵経緯松方コレクション
分類彫刻
所蔵番号S.1959-0045
地獄の門 The Gates of Hell
撮影: (c) 上野則宏

作品解説

1880年、ロダンは新しく建設される予定のパリの装飾美術館のために入口の門扉の制作を政府から依頼された。ダンテの熱烈な愛読者であり、既に1876年に『神曲』に取材した群像《ウゴリーノと息子たち》を制作していた彼は、ためらうことなくこの門扉を「『神曲』を表わした低浮彫」の連作によって作りあげようと決心をした。そして構成の形式をフィレンツェ洗礼堂のギベルティの《天国の門》にならって、直ちに制作にとりかかった。最初の構想スケッチでは、左右の扉がそれぞれ縦に四つのパネルに区切られ、全体で8面の浮彫によって「地獄篇」の情景が表現され、中央に巨像が置かれる構成であった。しかし、想を練るにつれてダンテの神学的秩序は失われ、次第に渾沌たる世界に変わっていった。ダンテよりも、むしろボードレールの『悪の華』に表現された人間自身の「地獄」の世界に踏み入って行ったと言えよう。石膏着彩の《「地獄の門」のマケット(第三構想)》は、粘土による立体的な習作の第三段階、すなわち最終的な構想を示しているが、主題内容の変化とともに構成形式も渾沌とした様相に変貌し、ほぼブロンズの完成作の全体が姿を現わしている。ダンテに取材したモチーフは最早「パオロとフランチェスカ」と「ウゴリーノと息子たち」の2つに限られ、門の中央には「詩作にふけるダンテ」に代わり、《考える人》が置かれている。以後、ロダンは終生この大作の制作に取り組み、彼の多くの独立した作品が《地獄の門》に関連して生み出された。タンパンの中央に坐って墜ち行く人々を凝視する男は《考える人》であり、門の頂に立つ《三つの影》は《アダム》と密接な関係を持っている。タンパンの右端に《立てるフォーネス》と《瞑想》、左手に《オルフェウスとマイナスたち》のマイナスたち。右扉の下部に《フギット・アモール》、左扉中央に《ネレイスたち》、左の付け柱に浮彫の《美しかりオーミエール》、その柱の上に《うちひしがれたカリアティード》、右の付け柱の上部に《私は美しい》の浮彫があり、この二人の男女を離したものが《考える人》の左の《うずくまる女》と左扉の上部から身をのけぞらせる男である。この大モニュメントは、しかし結局実際には使用されず、ロダンの生前にブロンズに鋳造されることもなかった。1920年代になって漸く鋳造が実現し、最近の鋳造を含め現在世界に七つのブロンズが存在する。(出典: 国立西洋美術館名作選. 東京, 国立西洋美術館, 2006. cat. no. 129、一部文言修正)

来歴

松方幸次郎氏購入; 1944年フランス政府が接収; 1959年フランス政府より寄贈返還

展覧会歴

1960
松方コレクション名作選抜展, 国立西洋美術館, 1960年5月14日-1960年7月10日, S-45
1966
ロダン展: 没後50年記念, 国立西洋美術館, 1966年7月23日-1966年9月11日, cat. no. 12
1989
ロダン「地獄の門」展: 開館30周年記念展, 国立西洋美術館 , 1989年10月21日-1989年12月17日, cat. no. 1
2000
西美をうたう:短歌と美術が出会うとき, 国立西洋美術館, 2000年7月25日-2000年10月29日, cat. no. 3
2006
ロダンとカリエール, 国立西洋美術館, 2006年3月7日-2006年6月4日, cat. no. 69
2012
手の痕跡:国立西洋美術館所蔵作品を中心としたロダンとブールデルの彫刻と素描, 国立西洋美術館, 2012年11月3日-2013年1月27日, cat. no. 65

文献歴

1890
Mabilleau, Léopold. Le Salon du Champ de Mars. Gazette des Beaux-Arts. vol. 4, ser. 3, 1890, pp. 474-493.
1900
Geffroy, Gustave. Auguste Rodin et son œuvre. La Plume, 1900, p. 36.
1900
Fontainas, André, Revue de mois, art moderne. Mercure de France. Vol. 35, Juillet 1900, pp 268-270.
1901
Mauclair, Camille. The Decorative Sculpture of Auguste Rodin. The International Monthly. London, Februay 1901, pp. 176-177.
1918
Morey, Charles Rufus. The Art of Auguste Rodin. Art Bulletin. No. 4, September 1918 , pp. 149-150.
1924
Bénédite, Léonce. Le Musée Rodin: Catalogue sommaire des œuvres d'Auguste Rodin et autres œuvres d'art de la donation Rodin. Paris, 1924, no. 256.
1935
Roger-Marx, Claude. Le tableau de salon. Avant la destruction d'un Monde. 1935, p. 180.
1937
Bourdelle, Antoine. La sculpture et Rodin. Emile-Paul, 1937, pp. 141-144.
1960
Elsen, Albert E. Rodin's Gate of Hell. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1960
1965
Elsen, Albert. Auguste Rodin: Reading on his Life and Work. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall; Englewood Cliffs, 1965 , pp. 66-80.
1966
Sutton, Denys. Triumphant Satyr: The World of Auguste Rodin. New York, Hawthorn Books, 1966, no. 15.
1967
Champigneulle, Bernard. Rodin. London, Thames and Hadson, 1967, pp. 127-149.
1967
Descharnes, Robert. Auguste Rodin. Paris, Edita Lausanne, 1967, pp. 68-105.
1969
Jianou, lonel; Goldscheider, C. Rodin. Paris, Arted Editions d'Art, 1969, p. 87, no. 12.
1976
Tancock, John L. The Sculpture of Auguste Rodin. Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1976, no. 1.
1977
De Caso; Jacques et Patricia Sanders. Rodin's sculpture: A Critical Study of the Spreckels collection. San Francisco, The Fine Arts Museum, 1977, pp. 121-129.
1980
Elsen, Albert E. In Rodin's Studio: A Photographic Record of Sculpture in the Making. Oxford, Phaidon, 1980, p. 164, no. 18.
1981
Elsen, Albert E. "The Gates of Hell: What they are about and something of their history". Rodin Rediscovered (exh. cat.). Washington, National Gallery of Art, 1981, pp. 63-79.
1983
Schmoll-Eisenwerth J. A. Rodin-Studien. Munich, Prestel-Verlag, 1983, pp. 215-232.
1986
Lampert, Catherine. Rodin Sculpture and Drawing. London, Arts Council of Great Britain, 1986, pp. 43-182.
1987
Facos, Michelle; Ambrosini, Lynne. Rodin: The Cantor Gift to the Brooklyn Museum. New York, The Brooklyn Museum, 1987, pp. 60-93.
1988
ロダン展: 国立西洋美術館所蔵. 国立西洋美術館学芸課編. 倉吉博物館, 1988, nos. 12-23.
1989
ロダン: 地獄の門展: 開館30周年記念特別展. [東京], 国立西洋美術館, 1989
1990
神戸市立博物館編. 松方コレクション西洋美術総目録. 神戸, 「松方コレクション展」実行委員会, 1990, cat. no. S-59.
1991
Auguste Rodin: Das Höllentor: Zeichnungen und Plastik (exh. cat.). München, Prestel-Verlag, 1991
1993
Butler, Ruth. Rodin: The Shape of Genius. New Heaven/ London, Yale University Press, 1993, pp. 141-149, 151-157, 214-225.
1993
Martinez, Rose-Marie. Rodin: L'artiste face à l'état. Nouvelles éditions Séguier, 1993, pp. 174-176.
1994
アルバート・E. エルセン. "ロダンの《地獄の門》におけるモダニティ". シンポジウム: ロダン芸術におけるモダニティ. 静岡県立美術館, 1994, pp. 17-25.
1994
Levkoff, Mary L. Rodin in his Time. Los Angeles, Museum Associates; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1994, pp. 54-57.
1994
ロダン館. 静岡県立美術館, 1994, pp. 68-75.
1996
Le Normand-Romain, Antoinette. Rodin: le musée et ses collections. Paris, Éditions Scala; Musée Rodin, 1996, pp. 33-43.
1997
Rodin and Michelangelo: A Study in Artistic Inspiration. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1997, pp. 44-47, 60-67, 212-215.
1999
Le Normand-Romain, Antoinette. Rodin: La Porte de l'Enfer. Paris, Musée Rodin, 1999
2001
Rodin Sculpture and Drawings (exh. cat.). Canberra, National Gallery of Australia, 2001, pp. 26-41.
2001
Rodin en 1900: l'exposition de l'alma (exh. cat.). Musée du Luxembourg, 12 March - 15 July 2001, Paris, Réunion des musées nationaux, 2001, no. 81.
2001
Audeh, Aida. "Rodin's Gates of Hell: Sculptural illustration od Dante's Divine Comedy". Rodin A Magnificent Obsession. Ross, Iain; Snow, Anthea eds. London, Merrell, 2001, pp. 93-126.
2002
Le Normand-Romain, Antoinette. Rodin: La porte de l'enfer. Paris, Editions du musée Rodin, 2002
2003
Elsen, Albert. Rodin's Art: The Rodin Collection of the Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at Stanford University. Barryte, Bernard ed. New York, Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 40-53, 155-174, no. 37.
2004
Mitchell, Claudine. Rodin: The Zola of Sculpture. Aldershot, Ashgate Publishing, 2004, pp. 24-28, 73-94.
2005
アントワネット・ル・ノルマン=ロマン. "地獄の門: ロダンのライフワーク". ロダン事典. 京都, 淡交社, 2005, pp. 114-128.
2005
ロダン事典. 京都, 淡交社, 2005, pp. 354-355, no. 18.
2013
国立西洋美術館名作選. 東京, 西洋美術振興財団, 2013, no. 129, col. repr.

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Auguste Rodin [Paris, 1840 - Meudon, 1917]

The Gates of Hell

Datec. 1880-90/1917 (model), 1930-33 (cast)
Materials/Techniquesbronze
Size (cm)540 x 390 x 100
Credit LineMatsukata Collection
CategorySculptures
Collection NumberS.1959-0045
The Gates of Hell
Photo by (c) Norihiro Ueno

In 1880 Rodin was commissioned by the government to create a set of doors for the entrance of the newly planned construction of the Museum of Decorative Arts in Paris. A fervent reader of Dante, Rodin had already created a group work in 1876 entitled Ugolino and his Sons based on the Divine Comedy, and without hesitation, he decided to create a series of "low reliefs depicting the Divine Comedy" for the doors. He immediately began from work on the project, basing his compositional forms on Ghiberti's Gates of Heaven on the Baptistry in Florence. In his first preparatory sketches, Rodin divided the right and left doors into four vertically arranged panels with scenes from "Hell" shown in low relief over the eight panels with a giant figure placed in the center. However he lost Dante's mythical order and it descended into a chaotic world. Rather than Dante's world, he has entered the Hell found in man's mind, expressed in Baudelaire's poetry, Les Fleurs du Mal. The third stage of the 3-D clay model, which became the gate's final composition, can be seen in the colored plaster cast model. Both the content and the compositional forms have been transformed into chaos in this final version, which generally represents the forms of the completed bronze work. For the rest of his life Rodin was involved in the creation of this work, and he created numerous works which are independent from The Gates of Hell. The man sitting on the center of the tympanum staring down at the figures descending to hell is The Thinker, and The Three Shades standing on top of The Gatse are closely related to the form of Adam. Meditation and Standing Fauness on the right edge of the tympanum and Orpheus and the Maenads stand on the left hand. In the lower part of the right door, Fugit Amor, and in the center of the left door Nereides. The relief on the left attached pillar La Belle Heaulmière and above that pillar Fallen Caryatid. The relief carving I am Beautiful is placed on the upper part of the attached pillar on the right and on the left of The Thinker, the male and female figures separated as Crouching Woman and the man with his body bent back from the upper part of the left door. This large monument was never actually used and it was not cast in bronze during Rodin's lifetime. The Gates were finally cast in the 1920s, and including recent casts, there are now seven Gates in bronze throughout the world. The first two bronzes were cast under commission by Kojiro Matsukata. (Source: Masterpieces of the National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, 2009, cat. no.129)

Provenance

Kojiro Matsukata; Sequestered by the French Government, 1944; Returned to Japan, 1959.

Exhibition History

1960
The Masterpieces of the Ex-Matsukata Collection, National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, 14 May 1960 - 10 July 1960, S-45
1966
Rodin, National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, 23 July 1966 - 11 September 1966, cat. no. 12
1989
Rodin et la Porte de l’Enfer (Rodin and the Gates of Hell), National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, 21 October 1989 - 17 December 1989, cat. no. 1
2000
Tanka at the National Museum of Western Art: An Encounter between Poet and Art, National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, 25 July 2000 - 29 October 2000, cat. no. 3
2006
August Rodin / Eugène Carrière, National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, 7 March 2006 - 4 June 2006, cat. no. 69
2012
Traces of Hands: Sculpture and Drawings by Rodin and Bourdelle from the National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, 3 November 2012 - 27 January 2013, cat. no. 65

Bibliography

1890
Mabilleau, Léopold. Le Salon du Champ de Mars. Gazette des Beaux-Arts. vol. 4, ser. 3, 1890, pp. 474-493.
1900
Geffroy, Gustave. Auguste Rodin et son œuvre. La Plume, 1900, p. 36.
1900
Fontainas, André, Revue de mois, art moderne. Mercure de France. Vol. 35, Juillet 1900, pp 268-270.
1901
Mauclair, Camille. The Decorative Sculpture of Auguste Rodin. The International Monthly. London, Februay 1901, pp. 176-177.
1918
Morey, Charles Rufus. The Art of Auguste Rodin. Art Bulletin. No. 4, September 1918 , pp. 149-150.
1924
Bénédite, Léonce. Le Musée Rodin: Catalogue sommaire des œuvres d'Auguste Rodin et autres œuvres d'art de la donation Rodin. Paris, 1924, no. 256.
1935
Roger-Marx, Claude. Le tableau de salon. Avant la destruction d'un Monde. 1935, p. 180.
1937
Bourdelle, Antoine. La sculpture et Rodin. Emile-Paul, 1937, pp. 141-144.
1960
Elsen, Albert E. Rodin's Gate of Hell. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1960
1965
Elsen, Albert. Auguste Rodin: Reading on his Life and Work. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall; Englewood Cliffs, 1965 , pp. 66-80.
1966
Sutton, Denys. Triumphant Satyr: The World of Auguste Rodin. New York, Hawthorn Books, 1966, no. 15.
1967
Champigneulle, Bernard. Rodin. London, Thames and Hadson, 1967, pp. 127-149.
1967
Descharnes, Robert. Auguste Rodin. Paris, Edita Lausanne, 1967, pp. 68-105.
1969
Jianou, lonel; Goldscheider, C. Rodin. Paris, Arted Editions d'Art, 1969, p. 87, no. 12.
1976
Tancock, John L. The Sculpture of Auguste Rodin. Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1976, no. 1.
1977
De Caso; Jacques et Patricia Sanders. Rodin's sculpture: A Critical Study of the Spreckels collection. San Francisco, The Fine Arts Museum, 1977, pp. 121-129.
1980
Elsen, Albert E. In Rodin's Studio: A Photographic Record of Sculpture in the Making. Oxford, Phaidon, 1980, p. 164, no. 18.
1981
Elsen, Albert E. "The Gates of Hell: What they are about and something of their history". Rodin Rediscovered (exh. cat.). Washington, National Gallery of Art, 1981, pp. 63-79.
1983
Schmoll-Eisenwerth J. A. Rodin-Studien. Munich, Prestel-Verlag, 1983, pp. 215-232.
1986
Lampert, Catherine. Rodin Sculpture and Drawing. London, Arts Council of Great Britain, 1986, pp. 43-182.
1987
Facos, Michelle; Ambrosini, Lynne. Rodin: The Cantor Gift to the Brooklyn Museum. New York, The Brooklyn Museum, 1987, pp. 60-93.
1988
Rodin: Selected Works from The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo. The National Museum of Western Art ed. Kurayoshi Museum, 1988, nos. 12-23.
1989
Rodin et la Porte de l'Enfer (exh. cat.). The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, 1989
1990
The Old Matsukata Collection. Kobe City Museum, ed. Kobe, "Matsukata Korekushon Ten" Jikkoiinkai, 1990, cat. no. S-59.
1991
Auguste Rodin: Das Höllentor: Zeichnungen und Plastik (exh. cat.). München, Prestel-Verlag, 1991
1993
Butler, Ruth. Rodin: The Shape of Genius. New Heaven/ London, Yale University Press, 1993, pp. 141-149, 151-157, 214-225.
1993
Martinez, Rose-Marie. Rodin: L'artiste face à l'état. Nouvelles éditions Séguier, 1993, pp. 174-176.
1994
Elsen, Albert E. "The Mondernity of Rodin's Gate of Hell". Symposium: The Modernity of Rodin. Shizuoka Prefectural Museum of Art, 1994 , pp. 136-142.
1994
Levkoff, Mary L. Rodin in his Time. Los Angeles, Museum Associates; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1994, pp. 54-57.
1994
A.Rodin Wing. Shizuoka Prefectural Museum of Art, 1994, pp. 68-75.
1996
Le Normand-Romain, Antoinette. Rodin: le musée et ses collections. Paris, Éditions Scala; Musée Rodin, 1996, pp. 33-43.
1997
Rodin and Michelangelo: A Study in Artistic Inspiration. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1997, pp. 44-47, 60-67, 212-215.
1999
Le Normand-Romain, Antoinette. Rodin: La Porte de l'Enfer. Paris, Musée Rodin, 1999
2001
Rodin Sculpture and Drawings (exh. cat.). Canberra, National Gallery of Australia, 2001, pp. 26-41.
2001
Rodin en 1900: l'exposition de l'alma (exh. cat.). Musée du Luxembourg, 12 March - 15 July 2001, Paris, Réunion des musées nationaux, 2001, no. 81.
2001
Audeh, Aida. "Rodin's Gates of Hell: Sculptural illustration od Dante's Divine Comedy". Rodin A Magnificent Obsession. Ross, Iain; Snow, Anthea eds. London, Merrell, 2001, pp. 93-126.
2002
Le Normand-Romain, Antoinette. Rodin: La porte de l'enfer. Paris, Editions du musée Rodin, 2002
2003
Elsen, Albert. Rodin's Art: The Rodin Collection of the Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at Stanford University. Barryte, Bernard ed. New York, Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 40-53, 155-174, no. 37.
2004
Mitchell, Claudine. Rodin: The Zola of Sculpture. Aldershot, Ashgate Publishing, 2004, pp. 24-28, 73-94.
2005
Le Normand-Romain, Antoinette. "Jigoku no Mon: Rodin no Raifuwaku". Le parcours d'un génie. Kyoto, Tankosya, 2005, pp. 114-128.
2005
Le parcours d'un génie. Kyoto, Tankosya, 2005, pp. 354-355, no. 18.
2013
Masterpieces: The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo. Tokyo, The Western Art Foundation, 2013 (Japanese, preface in Japanese and English), no. 129, col. repr.

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