更新日 2020.06.25 | 25 June 2020

展示中 常設展Permanent collection

ジュゼペ・デ・リベーラ[ハティバ, 1591年 - ナポリ, 1652年]

哲学者クラテース

制作年1636年
材質・技法・形状油彩、カンヴァス
寸法(cm)124 x 98.5
署名・年記右下に署名、年記、題名: Josephf de Ribera español /.F. 1636 / crate tebano
Standard ref.Spinosa A216
分類絵画
所蔵番号P.1989-0001
哲学者クラテース Philosopher Crates

作品解説

 リベーラはスペイン人ながらイタリアのナポリで活躍した画家で、カトリック聖人の劇的な殉教図や、「乞食哲学者」と称される一連の古代哲学者像に歴史上重要な功績を残しました。本作は後者の好例で、描かれているのはテーバイの哲学者クラテースです。犬儒学派の哲学者であった彼は、財産を棄てて托鉢生活を送り、ストア学派の祖ゼノンの師となっただけでなく、醜い容貌の持ち主としても知られた人物です。  リベーラは、古代の哲学者を古代風の衣装と類型化された風貌によってではなく、当世風の質素な――時にはっきりとみすぼらしい――身なりをした実在の男性をモデルに、写実的に表すことによって新たな表現方法を確立したのです。こうした哲学者像は評判を呼び、とりわけナポリでは17世紀を通じて繰り返し制作されました。 (出典: 展示室作品解説パネル)

来歴

Prinz Karl Eusebius von Liechtenstein, 1637, and his successors, until 1950; Private Coll., since 1950; Galerie Nathan, Zürich; Purchased by the NMWA, 1989.

展覧会歴

1948
Meisterwerke aus den Sammlungen des Fürsten von Liechtenstein, Kunstmuseum Luzern, 1948年-1948年, cat. no. N. A. 1.
1992
Jusepe de Ribera: 1591-1652, メトロポリタン美術館, 1992年9月18日-1992年11月29日, cat. no. 39, repr. color.
1997
国立西洋美術館展─愛と生命の響き: ルネサンスから近代への西洋美術の流れ, 新潟県立近代美術館, 1997年4月12日-1997年5月18日, cat. no. 2
2000
西美をうたう:短歌と美術が出会うとき, 国立西洋美術館, 2000年7月25日-2000年10月29日, cat. no. 19
2015
NO MUSEUM, NO LIFE?:これからの美術館事典:国立美術館コレクションによる展覧会, 東京国立近代美術館, 2015年6月16日-2015年9月13日, cat. no. T-1

文献歴

1767
Fanti, Vincenzio. Descrizzione completa di tutto ciò che ritrovasi nella galleria di pittura e scultura di sua altezza Giuseppe Wenceslao del S.R.I. principe regnante della casa di Liechtenstein. Wien, 1767, p. 105, no. 533.
1780
Dallinger, J. Description des tableaux et de pièces de sculpture, que renferme la gallerie de son altesse François Joseph Chef et Prince regnant de la Maison de Liechtenstein. Wien, 1780, p. 169, no. 573.
1873
Falke, J. von. Katalog der Fürstlich Liechtensteinischen Bildergalerie im Gartenpalais der Rossau zu Wien. Wien, 1873, p. 45, no. 374 (as unknown philosopher).
1908
Mayer, August L. Jusepe de Ribera (Lo Spagnoletto). Leipzig, 1908, p. 188 (as philosopher).
1927
Kronfeld, Adolf. Führer durch die Fürstlich Liechtensteinsche Gemäldegalerie in Wien. 2nd. ed, Wien, 1927, p. 80, no. A55 (as unknown philosopher).
1931
Kronfeld, Adolf. Führer durch die Fürstlich Liechtensteinsche Gemäldegalerie in Wien. 3rd. ed, Wien, 1931, p. 84, no. A374 (as unknown philosopher).
1958
Turner, Evan H. Ribera's Philosophers. Wadsworth Atheneum Bulletin. Spring, 1958, p. 5.
1982
Jusepe de Ribera, lo Spagnoletto (exh cat.). Felton, Craig; Jordan, William B, eds. Kimbell Art Museum, Fortworth, 1982, pp. 152-153.
1986
Felton, Craig. Ribera's 'Philosophers' for the Prince of Liechtenstein. The Burlington Magazine. vol. 128, no. 1004, Nov. 1986, pp. 785-789.
1990
国立西洋美術館新収蔵絵画目録: 昭和54年-平成元年. 東京, 国立西洋美術館, 1990, pp. 55-56, repr.
1992
国立西洋美術館年報. Nos. 23-24 (1988-89), 1992, 雪山行二. 新収作品解説. pp. 2, col. repr., 19-26, 新収作品目録. pp. 44-45, repr.
1994
河口公生. リベーラ《哲学者クラテース》修復処置報告. 国立西洋美術館年報. Nos. 25-26 (April 1990-March 1992), 1994, pp. 35-41. col. repr.
2006
国立西洋美術館名作選. 東京, 国立西洋美術館; 東京, 西洋美術振興財団, 2006, no. 44, col. repr.
2009
Masterpieces of The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo. Tokyo, The National Museum of Western Art; Tokyo, The Western Art Foundation, 2009, no. 44, col. repr.
2013
国立西洋美術館名作選. 東京, 西洋美術振興財団, 2013, no. 33, col. repr.

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Jusepe de Ribera [Xàtiva, 1591 - Naples, 1652]

Philosopher Crates

Date1636
Materials/Techniquesoil on canvas
Size (cm)124 x 98.5
InscriptionsSigned, dated and titled lower right: Josephf de Ribera español /.F. 1636 / crate tebano
Credit LinePurchased
Standard ref.Spinosa A216
CategoryPaintings
Collection NumberP.1989-0001
Philosopher Crates

This canvas is one work from a noteworthy series by Ribera, painted primarily in the 1630s, representing the famous philosophers of antiquity. Each image in the series is minutely worked to reveal the philosophy and character of its subject, an approach that would have appealed to the humanists of the day. However, Ribera distanced himself from the traditional iconographic framework for such images, and in spite of the fact that these works were meant to represent wise men, he painted from actual models and rejected all idealization as he created powerful depictions of their actual figures. If the inscription on the lower right of this painting is reliable, this canvas depicts the Theban philosopher Crates. This philospher, a Cynic active around 320 B. C., is known to have been the student of Diogenes and the teacher of Zeno, the founder of Stoicism. Crates abandoned his property to become a mendicant and the author of didactic parodies, tragedies and dramas. Crates is known to have been a kind, wise and fascinating character with an ugly face. However, the man shown here is not particularly ugly in Ribera's philosopher series. This painting is known to have been in the collection of the Prince of Lichtenstein in the mid 18th century, and judging from historical documents, it is surmised to have been one of a series of six works painted for the Prince in 1636-37. Today this series is divided between museums in the west and the NMWA. All six works were gathered for display in 1992 when the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, held an exhibition on Ribera. That opportunity to view the six works together revealed that there are slight differences in the styles of the six works, and thus it is clear that some of the paintings involved work by Ribera's studio. Of the six works, the NMWA's image of Crates was particularly noteworthy for its powerful, true touch. (Source: Masterpieces of the National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, 2009, cat. no.44)

Provenance

Prinz Karl Eusebius von Liechtenstein, 1637, and his successors, until 1950; Private Coll., since 1950; Galerie Nathan, Zürich; Purchased by the NMWA, 1989.

Exhibition History

1948
Meisterwerke aus den Sammlungen des Fürsten von Liechtenstein, Kunstmuseum Luzern, 1948 - 1948, cat. no. N. A. 1.
1992
Jusepe de Ribera: 1591-1652, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 18 September 1992 - 29 November 1992, cat. no. 39, repr. color.
1997
Resonating Love and Life: European Art from National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, The Niigata Prefectural Museum of Modern Art, Nagaoka, 12 April 1997 - 18 May 1997, cat. no. 2
2000
Tanka at the National Museum of Western Art: An Encounter between Poet and Art, National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, 25 July 2000 - 29 October 2000, cat. no. 19
2015
NO MUSEUM, NO LIFE?: Art-Museum Encyclopedia to Come: From the Collections of the National Museums of Art, The National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo, 16 June 2015 - 13 September 2015, cat. no. T-1

Bibliography

1767
Fanti, Vincenzio. Descrizzione completa di tutto ciò che ritrovasi nella galleria di pittura e scultura di sua altezza Giuseppe Wenceslao del S.R.I. principe regnante della casa di Liechtenstein. Wien, 1767, p. 105, no. 533.
1780
Dallinger, J. Description des tableaux et de pièces de sculpture, que renferme la gallerie de son altesse François Joseph Chef et Prince regnant de la Maison de Liechtenstein. Wien, 1780, p. 169, no. 573.
1873
Falke, J. von. Katalog der Fürstlich Liechtensteinischen Bildergalerie im Gartenpalais der Rossau zu Wien. Wien, 1873, p. 45, no. 374 (as unknown philosopher).
1908
Mayer, August L. Jusepe de Ribera (Lo Spagnoletto). Leipzig, 1908, p. 188 (as philosopher).
1927
Kronfeld, Adolf. Führer durch die Fürstlich Liechtensteinsche Gemäldegalerie in Wien. 2nd. ed, Wien, 1927, p. 80, no. A55 (as unknown philosopher).
1931
Kronfeld, Adolf. Führer durch die Fürstlich Liechtensteinsche Gemäldegalerie in Wien. 3rd. ed, Wien, 1931, p. 84, no. A374 (as unknown philosopher).
1958
Turner, Evan H. Ribera's Philosophers. Wadsworth Atheneum Bulletin. Spring, 1958, p. 5.
1982
Jusepe de Ribera, lo Spagnoletto (exh cat.). Felton, Craig; Jordan, William B, eds. Kimbell Art Museum, Fortworth, 1982, pp. 152-153.
1986
Felton, Craig. Ribera's 'Philosophers' for the Prince of Liechtenstein. The Burlington Magazine. vol. 128, no. 1004, Nov. 1986, pp. 785-789.
1990
Catalogue of painting acquisitions: 1979-1989. Tokyo, The National Museum of Western Art, 1990, pp. 55-56, repr.
1992
Annual bulletin of the National Museum of Western Art. Nos. 23-24 (1989-90), 1992, Yukiyama, Koji. New Acquisitions 1988-89. pp. 2, col. repr., 19-26, Catalogue of the New Acquisitions 1988-89. pp. 44-45, repr.
1994
Kawaguchi, Kimio. Restoration of "Portrait of Philosopher Crates" by Juseph de Ribera. Annual bulletin of the National Museum of Western Art. Nos. 25-26 (April 1990-March 1992), 1994, pp. 35-41. col. repr.
2006
Masterpieces of The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo. Tokyo, The National Museum of Western Art; Tokyo, The Western Art Foundation, 2006 (Japanese, preface in Japanese and English), no. 44, col. repr.
2009
Masterpieces of The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo. Tokyo, The National Museum of Western Art; Tokyo, The Western Art Foundation, 2009, no. 44, col. repr.
2013
Masterpieces: The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo. Tokyo, The Western Art Foundation, 2013 (Japanese, preface in Japanese and English), no. 33, col. repr.

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