更新日 2017.03.09 | 09 March 2017

展示中 常設展Permanent Collection

エル・グレコ(本名ドメニコス・テオトコプーロス) [カンディア, 1541年 - トレード, 1614年]

十字架のキリスト

材質・技法・形状油彩、カンヴァス
寸法(cm)95.5 x 61
署名・年記中央下に署名: domhnïkos / qeotokopulos / epoiei
Standard ref.Mayer 96; Manzini 61e
分類絵画
所蔵番号P.1974-0001
十字架のキリスト Christ on the Cross

作品解説

 揺らめく炎のように引き伸ばされた人体、荒々しい筆致、超自然的な色彩などにエル・グレコ晩年の様式を伝える作品です。彼は後半生をスペインのトレドで過ごし制作しましたが、ギリシャのクレタ島で生まれイコン画家として活躍、その後ヴェネツィアでティツィアーノやヤコポ・バッサーノの影響下に西欧絵画の技法を習得、まず細密画家として評判を得ました。彼のヴェネツィア滞在は、ヤコポの息子レアンドロ・バッサーノがヴェネツィア近郊バッサーノの父の工房で修業を始めたであろう時期と重なります。  エル・グレコのこうした晩年の境地は、一見したところイコン画ともはや何の関係もないように見えます。しかし近年の研究では、エル・グレコの非写実性は、イコン画を生んだビザンチン美術の造形に深く根ざしたものであると論じられています。事実、細長い人体や書割のような風景表現などは、15世紀後半のクレタ島で活躍したリッツォスのイコン画にも共通する要素です。(出典: 展示室作品解説パネル)

来歴

Duc d'Albe; Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, 1926; Hermann Eisner, Wien; Wildenstein, New York, 1961; Wildenstein Tokyo, Tokyo, 1973; Purchased by the NMWA, 1974.

展覧会歴

1962
The Arts of Man: a Selection from Ancient to Modern Times, Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, 1962年10月6日-1962年12月31日, cat. no. 4, repr.
1973
開設披露展 ルネッサンスからフォーヴまで, ウィルデンシュタイン東京, 1973年1月18日-1973年3月16日, cat. no. 2
1986
エル・グレコ展, 国立西洋美術館, 1986年10月18日-1986年12月14日, cat. no. 46, col. repr.
1991
からだのイメージ―西洋と日本の人体表現:近世から現代へ, 静岡県立美術館, 1991年10月19日-1991年12月1日, cat. no. Ⅰ-5, col. repr.
2005
よみがえる須磨コレクション――スペイン美術の500年, 長崎県美術館, 2005年4月23日-2005年6月5日, cat. no. 32, col. repr.
2012
エル・グレコ展, 国立国際美術館, 2012年10月16日-2012年12月24日, 東京都美術館, 2013年1月19日 - 4月7日, cat. no. 37, col. repr.
2014
橋本コレクション 指輪 神々の時代から現代まで ― 時を超える輝き, 国立西洋美術館 企画展示室, 2014年7月8日-2014年9月15日, cat. no. 165

文献歴

1926
Mayer, August L. Dominico Theotocopuli, El Greco: kritisches und illustriertes Verzeichnis des Gesamtwerkes. München, F. Hanfstaengl, 1926, cat. no. 96, repr. p. 19.
1931
Mayer, August L. El Greco. Berlin, Klinkhardt & Biermann, 1931, p. 114.
1937
Legendre, M.; Hartmann, A. Domenico Theotocopouli dit El Greco. Paris, Hyperion, [1937], repr. p. 220.
1950
Camón Aznar, José. Dominico Greco. 1st. ed., Madrid, Espasa-Calpe, 1950, tomo 1, p. 654, fig. 499, tomo 2, cat. no. 175.
1958
Gaya Nuño, Juan Antonio. La pintura española fuera de España. Madrid, Espasa-Calpe, 1958, pp. 205-206, no. 1417.
1962
Wethey, Harold E. El Greco and His School. vol. 2, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1962, p. 176, cat. no. X-50.
1963
Dallas News. 30. 9. 1963, col. repr.
1969
Manzini, Gianna; Frati, Tiziana. L'opera completa del Greco. Milano, Rizzoli, 1969, cat. no. 61e, repr.
1970
Camón Aznar, José. Domenico Greco. 2nd. ed., Madrid, 1970, tomo 1, p. 662, fig. 542.
1971
Gudiol, José. Doménikos Theotokópoulos, El Greco, 1541-1614. Barcelona, 1971, cat no. 120, fig. 143.
1975
国立西洋美術館名作選. 東京, 国立西洋美術館, 1975, no. 11, repr.
1975
Gazette des Beaux-Arts. ser. 6, tome 85, Mar. 1975. "Chronique des Arts", p. 67, no. 258, repr.
1976
国立西洋美術館年報. No. 9 (1974), 1976, 山田智三郎. [作品解説]. pp. 4-5. 新収作品目録. pp. 6-7, col repr. p. 2.
1978
国立西洋美術館名作選. 東京, 国立西洋美術館, 1978, no. 11, repr.
1979
国立西洋美術館総目録: 絵画篇. 東京, 国立西洋美術館, 1979, no. 137, repr.
2013
国立西洋美術館名作選. 東京, 西洋美術振興財団, 2013, no. 30, col. repr.

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El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos, called) [Candia, 1541 - Toledo, 1614]

Christ on the Cross

Materials/Techniquesoil on canvas
Size (cm)95.5 x 61
InscriptionsSigned lower center: domhnïkos / qeotokopulos / epoiei
Credit LinePurchased
CategoryPaintings
Collection NumberP.1974-0001
Christ on the Cross

El Greco created a number of Christ on the Cross paintings throughout his life. Many examples of the type seen here with its dramatic background filled with black, roiling clouds, can be found amongst the works of both El Greco and his followers. The background motifs, namely the combination of figures on horseback and buildings, were rendered in various different combinations. In all instances, however, the figure of Christ is shown in elongated form, and the elegant curve of his body along with his facial expression reveal more religious ecstasy than suffering. The church seen on the distant hill is San Lorenzo Monastery, constructed in El Escorial by Phillip II. The selection of this background element is particularly fascinating given that El Greco was estranged from Phillip II and was not commissioned by him to participate in the decoration of that monastery. Paintings of Christ on the Cross by El Greco with the same depiction of the figure of Christ and background exist in many large and small variations, located today throughout the world. One of these works, a large-scale image today in the Cleveland Museum of Art, is particularly impressive. However, the Cleveland image background shows only the tops of a forest and the tower of San Lorenzo Monastery, without any inclusion of the figures on horseback riding up a hill or skull and bones. These factors indicate that the Cleveland work was not the model for the NMWA work. This painting was created sometime after El Greco's arrival in Spain, when he had switched from his more corporeal images to an elongated, thin human proportion, a stronger flow to his curving lines and his almost impressionistic, rough brushstrokes. Given these various characteristics, this work can probably be considered a late period work, although it is quite hard to definitely confirm that the painting is by El Greco himself. It is clear that the fluttering drapery of Christ's loincloth is not by El Greco himself, and there is a dryness about the other brushwork overall that differs from another high-quality small-scale version (Ex-Gutzwiller Family, Paris). Further, there is some loss of sharpness in the expression of the background sky, an area in which El Greco excelled. If El Greco's hand is apparent in this work, it is only a bit, and overall the work should be considered a high-quality workshop production. Further research is needed on this question of attribution. (Source: Masterpieces of the National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, 2009, cat. no. 23)

Provenance

Duc d'Albe; Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, 1926; Hermann Eisner, Wien; Wildenstein, New York, 1961; Wildenstein Tokyo, Tokyo, 1973; Purchased by the NMWA, 1974.

Exhibition History

1962
The Arts of Man: a Selection from Ancient to Modern Times, Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, 6 October 1962 - 31 December 1962, cat. no. 4, repr.
1973
Inaugural exhibition, From Renaissance to Fauvism, Wildenstein, Tokyo, 18 January 1973 - 16 March 1973, cat. no. 2
1986
El Greco, National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, 18 October 1986 - 14 December 1986, cat. no. 46, col. repr.
1991
The Image of Human Body in the Past and Present, Shizuoka Prefectural Museum of Art, 19 October 1991 - 1 December 1991, cat. no. Ⅰ-5, col. repr.
2005
The Suma Collection Revisited: 500 Years of Spanish Art, Nagasaki Prefectual Art Museum, 23 April 2005 - 5 June 2005, cat. no. 32, col. repr.
2012
El Greco's Visual Poetics, National Museum of Art, Osaka , 16 October 2012 - 24 December 2012, Tokyo Metropolitan Art Museum, 19 January - 7 April 2013, cat. no. 37, col. repr.
2014
The Rings from The Hashimoto Collection of The National Museum of Western Art, The National Museum of Western Art, 8 July 2014 - 15 September 2014, cat. no. 165

Bibliography

1926
Mayer, August L. Dominico Theotocopuli, El Greco: kritisches und illustriertes Verzeichnis des Gesamtwerkes. München, F. Hanfstaengl, 1926, cat. no. 96, repr. p. 19.
1931
Mayer, August L. El Greco. Berlin, Klinkhardt & Biermann, 1931, p. 114.
1937
Legendre, M.; Hartmann, A. Domenico Theotocopouli dit El Greco. Paris, Hyperion, [1937], repr. p. 220.
1950
Camón Aznar, José. Dominico Greco. 1st. ed., Madrid, Espasa-Calpe, 1950, tomo 1, p. 654, fig. 499, tomo 2, cat. no. 175.
1958
Gaya Nuño, Juan Antonio. La pintura española fuera de España. Madrid, Espasa-Calpe, 1958, pp. 205-206, no. 1417.
1962
Wethey, Harold E. El Greco and His School. vol. 2, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1962, p. 176, cat. no. X-50.
1963
Dallas News. 30. 9. 1963, col. repr.
1969
Manzini, Gianna; Frati, Tiziana. L'opera completa del Greco. Milano, Rizzoli, 1969, cat. no. 61e, repr.
1970
Camón Aznar, José. Domenico Greco. 2nd. ed., Madrid, 1970, tomo 1, p. 662, fig. 542.
1971
Gudiol, José. Doménikos Theotokópoulos, El Greco, 1541-1614. Barcelona, 1971, cat no. 120, fig. 143.
1975
Les cent chefs-d'œuvre du Musée National d'Art Occidental. Tokyo, The National Museum of Western Art, 1975 (Japanese), no. 11, repr.
1975
Gazette des Beaux-Arts. ser. 6, tome 85, Mar. 1975. "Chronique des Arts", p. 67, no. 258, repr.
1976
Bulletin Annuel du Musée National d’Art Occidental. No. 9 (1974), 1976, Nouvelles acquisitions, par Chisaburoh F. Yamada, pp. 4-5. Nouvelles acquisitions (catalogue). pp. 6-7, col repr. p. 2.
1978
Masterpieces of the National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo. Tokyo, The National Museum of Western Art, 1978 (Japanese, preface in Japanese and English), no. 11, repr.
1979
The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo: Catalogue of paintings. Tokyo, The National Museum of Western Art, 1979, no. 137, repr.
2013
Masterpieces: The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo. Tokyo, The Western Art Foundation, 2013 (Japanese, preface in Japanese and English), no. 30, col. repr.

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